Category Archives: flowers

Early Spring Bloomers: Dwarf Irises

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Harmony

It is the end of January and already I can see the spiky green emerging from the mass of dead, brown leaves. Dwarf irises are one of my earliest bloomers in my zone 7 Virginia garden. These irises are only 4-5 inches tall and bloom solitary flowers. Mine have been in my garden for a long time, nothing bothers them. Usually they bloom in early March. This year we have had such a mild winter, I think I will see flowers in February.

J.S. Dijt

J.S. Dijt

Also known as netted iris, dwarf irises (Iris reticulata) are very small bulbs, covered with a fibrous netting. There are many cultivars; flower colors range from light to dark blue or light to dark purple. Preferring full sun and well-drained soil, they thrive in rock gardens, on steps and terraces, in containers, and can be forced to bloom indoors in pots. The flowers can be cut for small desk top vases, bringing early spring cheer to the office or home.

They are available to plant in the fall, along with other bulbs, at local garden centers or through bulb companies. Because they are so small though, buy at least a handful. Plant with roots pointing down, spike pointing up, three inches deep and three inches apart. Hardy to zone 5, they die back in the summer and come back in the spring every year. In my garden, ‘J.S. Dijt’ and ‘Harmony’ have thrived for years with no pests or diseases.

Subscribe Now to Pegplant’s Post for a Chance to Win David Austin English Rose

One of David Austin’s English roses in the landscape. Photo courtesy of David Austin Roses.

Enter your e-mail here to subscribe to Pegplant’s Post, an e-newsletter about gardening in the Washington DC metropolitan area. This free monthly communication lists 50 to 100 local gardening events, recently published gardening books, and articles and tips specific to this immediate area. Each issue also features the opportunity to win a free plant or gardening product. For the upcoming February 2020 Pegplant’s Post, one lucky subscriber will win a bare root English rose, courtesy of David Austin Roses.

A David Austin English rose needs no introduction. David Austin is one of the greatest rosarians and rose breeders in the world and the first to create a horticultural brand. In the early 1950s, David Austin began to create a more beautiful rose by combining the fragrance of old roses with the color range and repeat flowering habits of the modern roses. In 1961, he released his first commercial English rose, ‘Constance Spry’. Since then he has released more than 200 English roses. English roses are fragrant with many petals, creating a lush, full flower. The plants are disease resistant and bloom all season long.  The David Austin representative will work with the winner to determine the correct time for shipping and planting and to answer any questions about roses.

Visit the Philadelphia Flower Show on Opening Day!

This year the theme for the annual Philadelphia Flower Show is Riviera Holiday. In the past I have written articles about the show and the local nurseries and private organizations that host chartered bus trips. Taking a luxury bus is a great way to attend, no need to worry about traffic and parking. This year, there is a new trip so you can attend the first day, Saturday, February 29 (the show runs until March 8).

Teri Speight, owner of garden website Cottage In the Court, has reserved a bus departing from the lower parking lot of the District Heights Municipal Building, District Heights, MD. The bus departs at 8:00 am and returns by 9:00 pm. A native Washingtonian, Teri is a garden blogger, garden visionary, and a great garden speaker. For more information, contact Teri directly. The reservations deadline is Tuesday, January 14, 2020. Call at (301) 785-7507 or e-mail at teri@cottageinthecourt.com.

Each year the Philadelphia Flower show has a different theme and this year Riviera Holiday is inspired by the world’s exotic Mediterranean gardens. What a great break this will be from our cold, dreary winter! According to the flower show’s website, “groves of citrus trees lead the way providing a lush dramatic promenade to the sunshine drenched landscape ahead. Breathe in fragrant waves of lavender inspired by the terraced gardens of Monaco. Drifts of purple and white spiked salvias, specimen succulents, and an intoxicating variety of scented geraniums, roses, rosemary, and sage create a stunning mosaic that is at once picturesque and charming.”

Who could resist?

Local Resources for Gardeners Interested in Culinary Herbs

According to the Herb Society of America, herbs are “plants (trees, shrubs, vines, perennials, biennials, or annuals) valued historically, presently, or potentially for their flavor, fragrance, medicinal qualities, insecticidal qualities, economic or industrial use, or in the case of dyes, for the coloring material they provide.” I am particularly interested in “plants valued for their flavor,” i.e., culinary herbs. This is a work-in-progress guide to culinary herbs resources in the Washington DC metropolitan area.

The following are the local public herb gardens, sources for buying herbs, societies, magazines, and books. The asterisk indicates that the locations listed also offer herb events, classes, and workshops. This is not all inclusive, there are other groups and businesses such as master gardeners and nurseries that provide herbal presentations. These are listed on my local monthly events tab on pegplant.com.

Public Herb Gardens

National Herb Garden, U.S. National Arboretum, Washington DC*

National Library of Medicine’s Herb Garden, Bethesda, Maryland

Green Spring Gardens (Potomac Unit donated the Doris Frost Herb Garden in 1995), Alexandria, Virginia*

Meadowlark Botanical Garden’s Herb Garden, Vienna, Virginia*

U.S. Botanic Garden and the Bartholdi Park, Washington DC*

The Bishops Garden at the National Cathedral, Washington DC.

The Franciscan Monastery’s garden, Washington DC (annual plant and herb sale in April)

The Green Farmacy Garden, Fulton, MD*

Plant and Seed Sources

See pegplant.com for a list of nurseries and a list of seed sources. Most local nurseries sell herbs in the spring. Two nurseries that specialize in herbs are Debaggio’s Herb Farm and Nursery in Chantilly, VA, which is only open from spring to mid-summer; and Willow Oak Flower and Herb Garden* in Severn, MD.

The Potomac Unit of the Herb Society of America sells herbs at the Friends of the National Arboretum plant sale at the U.S. National Arboretum in DC, in April.

The Franciscan Monastery has an herb and plant sale in April.

The Baltimore Herb Festival is in May at the Leakin Park, Baltimore, MD.

Blooming Hill Lavender Farm specializes in lavender and has an annual lavender festival in June as well as other herb-related events throughout the year, Purceville, VA.*

Smile Herb Shop, College Park, MD.*

Societies

The Herb Society of America, Ohio. The website has many resources and a library of webinars.

The Potomac Unit of the Herb Society of America is the local unit for the Washington DC metro area. There is a membership form on the website or come to a meeting as a guest.

Magazines

The Essential Herbal magazine (a website, blog, magazine).

Herb Companion was bought by Mother Earth Living which keeps the content on their website. Herb Quarterly, can subscribe or buy at Barnes & Noble.

Culinary Herb Books, chronological order

Botanical Baking: Contemporary Baking and Cake Decorating with Edible Flowers and Herbs by Juliet Sear, 2019

The Herbalist’s Healing Kitchen: Using the Power of Food to Cook Your Way to Better Health by Devon Young, 2019

The Kitchen Herb Garden: Growing and Preparing Essential Herbs by Rosalind Creasy, 2019

Grow Your Own Herbs: The 40 Best Culinary Varieties for Home Gardens by Susan Belsinger and Arthur O. Tucker, 2019

Beyond Rosemary, Basil and Thyme: Unusual, Interesting and Uncommon Herbs to Enjoy by Theresa Mieseler, 2019

The Herbal Kitchen: Bringing Lasting Health to You and Your Family with 50 Easy-to-Find Common Herbs and Over 250 Recipes by Kami McBride, 2019

A Taste for Herbs: Your Guide to Seasoning, Mixes and Blends from the Herb Lover’s Garden by Sue Goetz, 2019

Herbal Handbook for the Homesteaders: Farmed and Foraged Herbal Remedies and Recipes by Abby Artemisia, 2019

The Art of Edible Flowers: Recipes and Ideas for Floral Salads, Drinks, Desserts and More by Rebecca Sullivan, 2018

The Herbalist’s Kitchen: Cooking and Healing with Herbs by Pat Crocker, 2018

The Homesteader’s Herbal Companion: The Ultimate Guide to Growing, Preserving and Using Herbs by Amy K. Fewell, 2018

The Art of Cooking with Lavender by Nancy Baggett, 2016

The Culinary Herbal: Growing and Preserving 97 Flavorful Herbs by Susan Belsinger and Arthur O. Tucker, 2016

Homegrown Herb Garden: A Guide to Growing and Culinary Uses by Lisa Baker Morgan and Ann McCormick, 2015

Cooking with Flowers: Sweet and Savory Recipes with Rose Petals, Lilacs, Lavender and Other Edible Flowers by Miche Bacher and Miana Jun, 2013

Edible Flowers: 25 Recipes and an A-Z Pictorial Directory of Culinary Flora by Kathy Brown, 2012

Eat Your Roses: … Pansies, Lavender and 49 other Delicious Edible Flowers by Denise Schreiber, 2011

Essential Guide to Growing and Cooking with Herbs by Herb Society of America, edited by Katherine K. Schlosser, 2007

The Edible Flower Garden by Kathy Brown, 1999

Edible Flower Garden by Rosalind Creasy, 1999

Edible Flowers: Desserts and Drinks by Cathy Wilkinson Barash, 1997

Living with Herbs: A Treasury of Useful Plants for the Home and Garden by Jo Ann Gardner 1997

Edible Flowers: From Garden to Palate by Cathy Wilkinson Barash, paperback 1995; hardback 1993

Herbal Treasures: Inspiring Month-by-Month Projects for Gardening, Cooking and Crafts by Phyllis Shaudys, 1990

Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs, edited by Claire Kowalchik and William H. Hylton, 1987

The Pleasure of Herbs: A Month-by-Month Guide to Growing, Using and Enjoying Herbs by Phyllis Shaudys, 1986

Best Helenium Plants for the Mid-Atlantic Area

Kanaria, top rated, with good powdery mildew resistance and a pollinator favorite

The Mt. Cuba Center has just published Helenium for the Mid-Atlantic Region, a 16-page report detailing the results of a 3-year trial of 44 taxa of Helenium plants. A member of the Aster family, the genus Helenium has summer to fall-blooming perennials with daisy-like flowers about 2 inches across. The flowers are in various colors of yellow, orange, and red, with raised yellow to brown centers, making them look like buttons.

The flowers are beautiful, but the plants are not commonly found in American gardens. Part of this may be because its common name “sneezeweed” leads people to erroneously assume the flowers cause allergies. In fact, the flowers are pollinated by insects, not wind. Sneezeweed is finely ground plant parts that are inhaled, like tobacco snuff. Part of the unpopularity may also be the plant’s tendency to flop over, exhibit powdery mildew, and/or contract a disease called aster yellows. Although they require full to partial sun, they are not drought tolerant and native plants are found growing in wet areas.

When asked why this genus was chosen for the trial garden, Sam Hoadley, Mt. Cuba Center’s Horticultural Research Manager, answered: “Helenium really is a genus that is native to the Americas, and there are several species native to the eastern United States. They are really not well represented in American horticulture. I think, outside of the native plant communities that will work with Helenium autumnale and Helenium flexuosum, we felt that this [trial] represents a fairly diverse group of plants and deserves a second look in American horticulture after it’s been so popular in Europe to see how these plants perform there. We also knew that they have significant benefits for bees and wasps, anecdotally. We really wanted to see how these plants would perform and what benefits or attraction they would have for these pollinators when brought back to the United States.”

Zimbelstern, second top rated, pollinator favorite, excellent powdery mildew resistance

Heleniums are popular in European gardens where extensive breeding has been done in Germany and the Netherlands. German breeders Karl Foerster, Gustav Deutschmann, Peter zur Linden and Dutch breeders Inez Arnold and Bonne Ruys have cultivated many Heleniums for exquisite flower colors, shorter forms, and increased resistance to drought. Karl Foerster in particular created more than 70 cultivars drawing on two native American species: H. bigelovii, which is found in Southern Oregon, California, and Arizona; and H. autumnale, which is found across the country. These plus a third species that is found in the eastern United States, H. flexuosum, were included in the trial.

“They really contribute some great late-season interest,” said Sam. “They are in bloom when gardens are in a lull, right at the end of summer and the beginning of fall, bridging a gap in the garden. There’s been a lot of Helenium breeding so that size, stature, and habit of the plant are becoming more and more diverse. For that reason, you are able to incorporate it into more garden designs.”

H. autumnale, a native species that is most visited by bees and wasps

In the trial at the Mt. Cuba Center in Delaware, forty-four taxa including three species were grown in full sun on clay-loam soil. By the beginning of the third or final year, only one-third of the original 220 plants remained. Plants were given minimal care although staff did try to prevent the flop with the Chelsea Chop and several staking methods on some plants to see which would work. Plants were watered during the first year for establishment and during any extremely dry periods. They were not sprayed with fungicides. Many plants succumbed to dry soil, powdery mildew, aster yellows, and possibly poor winter hardiness.

The downloadable report has three tables:  performance summary ratings and plants characteristics, plants that did not complete the trial, and best Heleniums for bees and wasps. Plants are rated on a scale of five (excellent) to 1 (very poor) and include a variety of criteria. None received a five but the top rated, Kanaria, is 4.3, followed by Flammenspiel and Zimbelstern at 4.2, Can Can at 4.1, H. flexuosum at 4.0, and H. autumnale at 3.9. The Mt. Cuba Center’s Pollinator Watch Team observed the plants and found that bees and wasps preferred H. autumnale followed by Zimbelstern, Kanaria, Can Can, and Tijuana Brass.

Can Can, one of top 4 rated, excellent powdery mildew resistance, and a pollinator favorite

Since 2002, the Mt. Cuba Center trial garden has been evaluating native plants and their related cultivars for their horticultural and ecological value. See their website for past reports on phlox, monarda, baptisia, coreopsis, heuchera, echinacea, and asters.

All photos courtesy of Mt. Cuba Center.

Fennel: A Multitasking Herb

fennel in the summer with caterpillar in right corner

I grow fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, in my Virginia garden for many reasons. As an accent in the garden, fennel grow easily from seed to a few feet tall. Sometimes, they are erect and sometimes they bend from weight to weave among the perennials and shrubs. Their tubular stems mingle with the pumpkin vines on the ground or rest on top of the chrysanthemum shrubs while their green, fern-like foliage peak through the zinnias.

Throughout the summer, I can harvest the foliage for use in the kitchen. The leaves have an anise flavor and are good for flavoring fish and chicken dishes and root vegetables. Snips of the foliage can be sprinkled on salads, soup, eggs, and tuna salad sandwiches.

In the summer, the fennel blooms with large, star-burst like structures, comprising many small yellow flowers. These attract beneficial insects and pollinators, good for the rest of my garden. Sometimes, I clip the flower heads for floral arrangements but I always let some flowers go to seed.

In the fall, I clip the seed heads and put them in a paper bag. I save some seeds for sowing next year and some for the kitchen. The seeds have medicinal qualities (the foliage does not) and are often served at the end of the meal in restaurants to help with digestion and to freshen the breath. Eating the seeds or making a tea from the seeds can relieve flatulence, bloating, gas, indigestion, cramps, and muscle spasms. Fennel seeds are also called “meeting seeds” because when the Puritans had long church sermons they chewed on the seeds to suppress hunger and fatigue.

fennel as a filler in the garden

In the kitchen, seed can be used whole or ground or toasted in a dry frying pan. Seeds can be used as a spice for baking sweets, breads, and crackers, or in sausage, or herbal vinegars and pickling. The seeds have the same anise flavor but are so sweet, they taste like they are sugar-coated. For me it is like eating small candies, especially tasty after drinking coffee.

I also grow fennel for the caterpillar form of the black swallowtail butterflies. The caterpillars love to eat the foliage and it makes me happy to grow food for them and to support the butterfly population.

Sometimes the fennel comes back the next year, it really depends on the winter. I have heard that in warmer climates it gets out of control but in my zone 7 garden, it has not been an issue. After a hard freeze, when I am cleaning up the garden, I cut back the old fennel stalks revealing new foliage at the base. In December, the new foliage is just as lush and green, providing me with more fennel for my recipes as well as a nice garnish for holiday meals.

fennel seeds in the fall with the mums

Fennel is easy to grow from seed and should be sowed directly in the garden. The plants have a tap root and do not like to be transplanted. The plants prefer full sun but can tolerate some shade and they need well-drained soil. Treat them like summer annuals and sow seeds every year.

fennel in December

I should point out that there are two types, Foeniculum vulgare, which is the leafy one I grow, and Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce, which is the bulbing type. I have grown the bulbing type before but not for the accents it provides in the garden bed. The bulbing type is a shorter plant with a bulbous base so it is harvested for the bulb before it flowers and sets seed. The bulb is often sliced fresh for salads or cooked with fish and vegetables. One could consider the bronze fennel a third type, it grows like the leafy fennel only it is a dark bronze color, not bright green. Bronze fennel also can be used in the kitchen.

In the kitchen, use the foliage for:

  • green salads
  • fruit salad (nectarine/apricot)
  • egg dishes
  • soup and chowders
  • chicken salad or tuna salad
  • Dips and cream sauces
  • yeast breads
  • fish, put a fish filet on bed of leaves and broil or mix leaves with butter and drizzle over the fish
  • vegetables such as root vegetables, peas and potatoes
  • Combine with parsley, chervil, and thyme or make a fennel, parsley, thyme and lemon juice rub for white fish

Seeds can be used for:

  • Fish soup/stock
  • Cucumber salads
  • Soft cheeses
  • Bread/biscuits/crackers
  • Sausage mixtures and pork dishes
  • Pickling vegetables
  • Marinades for meat
  • Bean, couscous, lentil or bulgur wheat dishes
  • Potato salad
  • Dry rubs or spice blends/powders

Celebrate National Cookie Day with Herbal Cookie Recipes!

December 4 is #nationalcookieday so here are three recipes for cookies that include herbs!

Lemon Thyme Cookies

1 cup unsalted butter, at room temperature

¾ cup sugar

2 ¾ cup all-purpose flour

½ tsp. baking powder

¼ tsp salt

1 tbsp fresh thyme leaves

2 tsp. finely grated lemon zest

1 egg

1 1/2 tsp. vanilla extract

Optional Icing: 2 tsp. finely grated lemon zest, 2 cups confectioner’s sugar, and 1/4 cup fresh lemon juice

thyme

Directions: In large bowl, mix flour, baking powder, and salt, set aside. In another large bowl, beat butter and sugar with mixer and then beat in thyme and 2 teaspoons lemon zest. Add egg and vanilla. Reduce mixer speed and add flour mixture. Roll dough into 1 ½ inch diameter logs, wrap, and place in freezer for 30 minutes. Line baking sheets with parchment paper, slice 1/8-inch rounds and place on sheets. Bake at 350 degrees for 10 minutes.

When cookies have cooled, can top with icing. Mix the confectioners’ sugar, fresh lemon juice, and 2 tsp. of lemon zest and spoon over cookies.

Herbal Shortbread Cookies

1 cup unsalted butter, cut up and at room temperature

½ cup sugar

2 cups all-purpose flour

½ tsp salt

1 tbsp. herb of choice: try calendula petals, lavender flowers, rosemary, or lemon balm

calendula

Directions: Beat together butter and sugar, add flour, salt, and herb. Mix and then roll out onto floured surface, so is about ¼ to ½ inch thick. Cut shapes such as circles and then put on ungreased baking sheet, bake at 325 degrees for about 25 minutes.

Lavender Cookies

½ cup unsalted butter, softened

1/3 cup light brown sugar

1 ¼ cups self-rising flour

1 tbsp dried lavender flowers, crush with mortar and pestle

Pinch salt

lavender

Directions: Cream butter, sugar, and salt and then add flour and lavender. Mix and let sit in fridge for a few hours. Then place dough onto floured surface, roll to 1/3-inch thick Cut into circles and place on greased baking sheet, bake at for 400 degrees for 8 to 10 minutes.

lemon thyme cookies courtesy of Tonya LeMone at Perennial Gardens, Utah.

Care of Chrysanthemums: Post-Bloom and Post-Frost

chrysanthemums are perennial plants

Its chrysanthemum season, time to enjoy the autumn colors of yellow, orange, and red flowers. But what to do after Jack Frost visits?

Todd Brethauer, president of the Old Dominion Chrysanthemum Society, says to cut back the mums in the garden to 4 inches and cover with 4 inches of mulch, such as pine boughs or straw. It is okay if the plant is in darkness, it will be dormant during the winter months. Although mums are perennials, they are subject to the soil heaving during warm winter days which can damage or kill the roots. Keeping the plants covered insulates and protects them from the fluctuations in soil temperature. When spring arrives, remove the mulch.

If you have purchased a potted mum this fall and it is still in the container, cut back the stems to 4 inches and cover the entire plant and pot with mulch. Todd suggests keeping the plant in the container and not taking the plant out and planting in the garden. There is not enough time for the mum’s roots to become established in the ground; therefore, the plant will not survive the winter. For extra insulation, Todd suggests putting the entire plant and container under a deck, covered with mulch, and even putting the pot on its side so excess rain or snow will run off. Otherwise, treat decorative potted mums as annuals. Either throw away after they bloom or take the plants out of the containers and put the plants in the compost pile when they are past their prime.

The best time to plant mums in your garden is in the spring after the last frost. This will give them all summer long to get established.

chrysanthemums forced for fall flowers don’t have time for root establishment in the garden bed

Subscribe to Pegplant’s Post, a Newsletter for DC Metro Area Gardeners

Apricot Giant Tulip

Enter your e-mail here to subscribe to Pegplant’s Post, a free monthly newsletter about gardening in the Washington DC metropolitan area. Each issue lists 50 to 100 local gardening events, lectures, and workshops; recently published gardening books; and articles and tips specific to this immediate area. Subscribers have a chance to win a gardening product or plant every month.

For the November 2019 issue, we are doing something a little different for the giveaway. Instead of having one subscriber win one product, we are going to have five possible winners. Each person can receive 100 tulip bulbs. We have collaborated with Dutch Grown to give away a total of 500 tulips — five winners will get 100 of one variety. Winners cannot pick which variety, but it will be 100 of Apricot Giant, or Jumbo Cherry, or Strawberry Fields Collection, or Rainbow Parrot, or Apricot Parrot.

Rainbow Parrot Tulip

Established in 1882, Dutch Grown has been shipping and selling spring blooming bulbs from their family farm in Holland to growers in the United States. They launched their website in 2001 and in 2007 they were able to set up their online shop.  Initially only wholesale quantities were available for purchase online but they were able to provide retail prices by opening a warehouse in West Chester, PA. They ship bulbs from Holland to the warehouse in Pennsylvania and from this site they can deliver retail orders to gardeners and home owners. Their website has a blog, a question submission form, a bulb calculator, a zone finder, and several videos.

So if you are not a subscriber, subscribe now to Pegplant’s Post for a chance to win 100 bulbs. Read the November newsletter for details. All photos courtesy of Dutch Grown.

Apricot Parrot Tulip

Save Your Geraniums for Next Year

Red geraniums in a large container in May

When my mother lived in Vienna, Virginia, she grew red geraniums in large containers by the front door. Every fall she would pull the plants out of the containers, knock off the excess soil, and place the plants on a shelf in the basement. There was one small window allowing very little light but these plants would come back to life the following summer. She did this because her mother, who lived in Wisconsin, also saved geraniums in the fall. However, her mother had a sunny foyer. Every fall, she would cut her plants back, repot them in smaller containers, and treat them as small indoor plants in the foyer. Both methods worked well. Geraniums can take quite a bit of dryness which is what makes them ideal for overwintering.

This year, I received a geranium from All-America Selections. Calliope is a 2017 AAS ornamental vegetative winner (not grown from seed) with red flowers. It has bloomed all summer in a large container, in full sun. I added Osmocote when I originally planted it in May but I have not needed to water it. The rain has been enough. Every time I see this pretty plant I think of my mother and grandmother and how gardening wisdom passes down from generation to generation. Before winter hits, I want to save my geranium too. Since I do not have a brightly lit room in my house, I will try my mother’s technique.

Calliope in October, ready to be overwintered

This month, before frost, I will lift the plant out of the container, shake the soil off and cut off or back diseased parts and the flowers. Then I will let it dry for a few days in the shade on the deck so that excess moisture will evaporate. I will then place the plant in a large paper grocery bag, upside down, and close with a binder clip.  I will store the bag in the coolest place in the basement, which will be around 50 degrees.

Periodically, I will check the plant to see if it is getting too dry or, conversely, moldy. If moldy, I would just cut and throw away those parts.  If too dry, I would soak the roots in water for a few hours and then dry and put back in the bag. Of course, the foliage will die off eventually but that is okay.  In the beginning of April, I will put the root structure in a small container with drainage holes. I am assuming the plant will look like a dead stump but I have no doubt it will come back to life. I will water and place the container in the living room where it is warmer and lighter than the basement. This will trigger the plant to leaf out again. After the average last frost date (Mother’s Day here), I will put the container on the deck. It will be in shade at first which actually will be more light than the living room. Gradually, I will move the container to a sunny location and probably in late May, I will plant it back into its large container with another dose of Osmocote.

If you have geraniums, now is the time to think about saving them so you can enjoy them again next summer. This method should enable you to enjoy your geraniums for many years to come.

Pink and red geraniums in the landscape in August