Daffodils Giveaway for Pegplant’s Post Gardening Newsletter Subscribers

Kapiti Peach Daffodil

Subscribe to Pegplant’s Post Gardening Newsletter, a free monthly newsletter about gardening in the VA/MD/DC metro area. Enter your e-mail here to subscribe. Each issue lists 50-100 local gardening events, recently published gardening books, articles, tips, and news specific to this area. Pegplant’s Post Gardening Newsletter always has a giveaway, an opportunity to win a free plant or gardening-related product.

For the upcoming October 2023 issue of Pegplant’s Post, subscribers have a chance to win 40 bulbs of four different types of spring blooming daffodils.

John Scheepers Beauty from Bulbs has donated 10 bulbs each from four different daffodils: Kapiti Peach, Eaton Song, Fidan and Littlefield  for a total of 40 bulbs. Daffodils are very easy to plant in the fall and bloom reliably in the spring year after year. These long-lived bulbs are deer and rodent resistant. John Scheepers is a Connecticut-based, family-owned business started by John Scheepers in 1908. Born in the Netherlands, he came to America in 1897 and in the 1900s, his bulb company become known as the premier resource for Dutch flower bulbs in the United States. He is credited for revolutionizing gardening through the wide use of flower bulbs in this country. Today, John Scheepers Beauty from Bulbs is a fourth-generation family business specializing in Dutch flower bulbs. There are two sister companies: the wholesale side, Van Engelen, and Kitchen Garden Seeds which provides vegetable, herb, and flower seeds to gardeners. All have very informative websites. This company is a trusted source for bulbs as well as garden seed.

Eaton Song Daffodil

If you don’t already subscribe, subscribe now to the free Pegplant’s Post Gardening Newsletter to be eligible to win this fantastic giveaway!

All photos courtesy of John Scheepers Beauty from Bulbs website.

Littlefield Daffodil

Fidan Daffodil

Growing Zinnias That Are Resistant to Powdery Mildew

Mexican zinnia

I grow zinnias every year in my Virginia garden. Zinnias are probably one of the easiest flowers to grow from seed in this area. These warm season annuals can be sown directly into a container or on the ground after the last frost. They need full sun, good air circulation, and they are not particular about the soil. The flowers attract butterflies and bees; deer do not bother the plants.

The only hitch is that some species are prone to powdery mildew. Our hot and humid summer is an ideal environment for this fungal disease that creates a white coating on the plants. It does not kill the plants but makes the foliage unsightly. However, there are some zinnias that are resistant to powdery mildew.

Narrow-leaf zinnia, Zinnia angustifolia or Z. linearis, is a foot tall, bushy plant with narrow leaves and small, single, daisy-like flowers. The flowers are about an inch wide with single-colored petals such as orange, red, pink, white, or yellow. Because of its compact size, it makes an excellent window box or container plant and can be used in the garden as a border plant. These are small but you cut a bunch and put in a small vase.

Zinnia angustifolia

Mexican zinnia (Z. haageana) is like narrow-leaf zinnia in shape, size, and foliage. The flowers are a little larger and can be single, semi-double, or double petals. Each flower has more than one color – usually a spectrum of sunset colors: red, orange, burgundy, yellow, and cream. I discovered them when I purchased Renee’s Garden Persian Carpet mix, which I love. There are other flower blends such as Aztec Sunset, Jazzy Mix, Old Mexico, and Soleado. Again, small flowers but a bunch can be cut for small vases. These are excellent for containers and as border plants.

There are two series of zinnias that have been bred specifically for powdery mildew resistance:  Z. marylandica, also called Zahara, and the Profusion series. Zahara has flowers that are larger than the two previously mentioned species, about 2 to 2 1/2 inches wide. There is a wider flower color range too. The plants are taller, about 18 inches high, which is better for floral arrangements. Profusion is pretty much the same as Zahara, a taller zinnia with larger flowers. Zahara and Profusion give you a wide range of colors to pick from, these are easy to find in seed catalogs.

All of these are going to be easier to find if you look for the seed instead of a plant in a garden center. The companies below have these varieties and here is a list of more than 100 seed companies if you want to look for more zinnias.
Johnny’s Selected Seeds
Kitchen Garden Seeds
Park Seed
Renee’s Garden

Mexican zinnias in a vase


American Pokeweed: Weed, Ornamental, or Herb?

mature pokeweed berries

A common sight in Virginia now are the purple berries hanging from green shrubs along the roadside. American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) is an herbaceous perennial, considered a weed by most gardeners. Pokeweed is easy to find on roadsides, fields, and ditches. From summer to fall, pokeweed blooms small white flowers on peduncles (stems) making them stick out.

In the fall, the berries appear first as flatten green balls with a dimple in the center on hot pink racemes. Later, they inflate to deep purple, ¼-inch balls on red racemes. The contrast of purple and red or green and pink is so pretty that pokeweed is often used for fall floral arrangements.

immature pokeweed berries

The plant itself lends to a small tree shape. It could be shaped into a striking, well-branched miniature “tree.” There are variegated varieties which are especially ornamental. I discovered ‘Silverstein’ at the outdoor gardens of the U.S. Botanic Garden in DC.

Pokeweed berries are attractive but it is important to know that all parts of the mature plant are poisonous. Some people even get rashes from touching the plant. If you have children or see pokeweed in areas where children frequent such as school playgrounds, you should remove the plants so they are not tempted to eat the purple berries. Pull the thick stems after a rain when the soil is loose and when the plants are young. Mature plants develop taproots, making them difficult to remove completely.

American pokeweed is a native American herb. Native Americans used the plant for medicinal purposes such as a cardiac stimulant, for cancer treatment, and for rheumatism, epilepsy, and neurological disorders. The young green shoots and leaves can be cooked and eaten like spinach or asparagus (only the young part, not the mature parts). The ink from the fruit was used as writing ink or clothes dye. The plant is an excellent source of food for birds, which is why it “pokes” up in so many places. This native American plant has a fascinating history in our American culture.

When pokeberry appears in your garden, consider its many uses. You can treat it like a weed and remove it or keep it as a native plant and let the birds enjoy the berries.

A variegated form called “Silverstein’ at the U.S. Botanic Garden

What’s That in the Tree? Fall Webworm

Fall turns up all kinds of pests and diseases in the garden. You may be noticing what looks like stretched pantyhose in your trees now.  Look closely and you will see that these are webs with small caterpillars inside. Each caterpillar is marked with parallel rows of black spots on the back. The fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) is very noticeable now but at this stage, the caterpillars stay in the web and feed inside on the leaves of the tree. The web is unsightly but their feeding will not kill the tree. However, this would be a good time to cut the branches and bag the webs, caterpillars and all. Close up the bags tightly and dispose the bags in the trash.

Later, after the last molt, they leave the web and crawl all over the tree. They spin cocoons, pupate, and emerge as white moths. If you are not able to bag the web don’t despair, there are many natural enemies of the fall webworm. Another tactic is to spray the first generation in the spring with horticultural oil, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), or insecticidal soap before they create the web. Don’t try to burn them out though, it is too dangerous to the tree. For more information on plant pests and diseases, check out the Plant Pests and Diseases tab on pegplant.com.


Winter Squash Outperforms Summer Squash in My Garden

Immature Sweet Jade Winter Squash

For years I have grown zucchini and yellow summer squash from seed and every summer the dreaded squash vine borer decimates them. I have tried all the tricks but to no avail. This summer, I tried one last time and I also grew a winter squash. True to form, the summer squashes are half dead, their guts spilling out like seppuku. My winter squash, however, is happily wrapping itself around tomato and basil plants and running amuck across the grass.

Take a look at ‘Sweet Jade’. This is one plant, grown from seed sowed in May (thank you Johnny’s Selected Seeds). Under the large green leaves are several green squashes. I had no idea ‘Sweet Jade’ would get this large but we have been blessed with plenty of rain this year.

One Sweet Jade Plant Taking Over the Garden

Kabocha is a Japanese type of winter squash. Sweet Jade is a green type, a 2023 national All-America Selections winner. It is relatively small — a single serving –that can be carved into a soup bowl or “vase” for floral arrangements. Similar to acorn or butternut squash, the flesh can be roasted, baked, or pureed plus the skins are thin enough to eat. When mature, Sweet Jade is dark green with lighter green stripes with stump-like, corky stems and bright orange-yellow flesh.

All squash plants are warm season annuals, requiring full sun and fertile, well-drained soil. I have not had any pest or disease issues with Sweet Jade so far.  The wilted yellow summer squash and zucchini plants are nearby indicating that squash vine borers are in the vicinity but seemingly uninterested in Sweet Jade.

The kabocha squash belongs to the species Cucurbita maxima. Zucchini and yellow summer squash belong to a different species, C. pepo. According to Amy Goldman’s The Compleat Squash: A Passionate Grower’s Guide to Pumpkins, Squashes and Gourds, which covers several species, C. maxima has “mild flavor, high solids (starches and sugars), freedom from fibers, and a brilliant orange flesh. Choosy canners choose maximas.”

Mature Sweet Jade Winter Squash, photo courtesy of All-America Selections

Winter squashes are grown in the summer like summer squash, but they can be stored for months. This type needs to be harvested before a hard frost, preferably when the stem gets corky, dry, and brown. Then the squash must be sun cured for about a week or cured indoors at 80 to 85 degrees. Afterwards, if stored at 50 to 60 degrees, the squash can last for 4 to 5 months. The flesh gets sweeter during storage, so it is best to eat the squash in the fall/winter.

I am looking forward to harvesting mine later this fall. There are plenty of recipes online for this one in particular but any winter squash recipe will do. Try growing winter squashes next year but make sure you have plenty of room!

Subscribe to a Free, Local Gardening Newsletter

Subscribe to Pegplant’s Post Gardening Newsletter, a free monthly newsletter about gardening in the VA/MD/DC metro area. Enter your e-mail here to subscribe. Each issue lists 50-100 local gardening events, recently published gardening books, articles, tips, and news specific to this area. Pegplant’s Post Gardening Newsletter always has a giveaway, an opportunity to win a free plant or gardening-related product. For the upcoming September 2023 issue of Pegplant’s Post, the giveaway is a gift bag of Kitchen Minis™ Quick Snack cucumber seeds; a decorative container; a trellis; one red, slotted kitchen spoon; a pen; a vegetable notebook; and a thermos/soup container.

Kitchen Minis™ are miniature vegetable plants – tabletop vegetables! In addition to the tomato and pepper plant, their newest edition is a cucumber. The cucumber can be grown outdoors in the summer or indoors in a container and does not need bees for pollination. The plant is a few feet high and produces cucumbers about 3 inches long. With these adorable cukes, you can eat fresh off the plant, add them to a vegetable platter, perk up your salad, or infuse water and cocktails. Kitchen Minis are available as plants or seed through mail-order catalog companies and seasonally at a few brick-and-mortar stores.

If you don’t already subscribe, subscribe now to the free Pegplant’s Post Gardening Newsletter to be eligible to win this fantastic giveaway!

There’s More to Basil Than Pesto

Pesto Perpetuo basil

I cannot imagine a garden without basil plants. Basil is the essence of summer. I don’t limit myself to just one — I grow lemon, lime, sweet, Thai, holy, and cinnamon, just to name a few. It seems that most people only know sweet basil and only one use for it: pesto.  Granted sweet basil has become the poster child, but there are many different types of basil plants to explore. The genus Ocimum has more than 30 species. Within the Ocimum basilicum species, there are more than 40 cultivars.  All of these can be used in a variety of ways both in the garden and home.

Basil plants are herbaceous annuals that need warmth, full sun, and well-drained soil. If I think of basil as an annual flowering plant, I can imagine how to use the different varieties. Also, classifying basil into five basic categories makes it easier to select a particular type for a particular function.

  • sweet green foliage (the green plant we always associate with pesto such as Genovese or Italian large leaf)
  • small leaves and dwarf size (spicy globe basil, dwarf Greek basil, Minette, or Pluto)
  • colored foliage (purple leaved Purple Ruffles or Dark Opal or light green/cream variegated Pesto Perpetuo)
  • colorful flower heads (Thai Siam Queen has purple stems and fragrant purple flowers), African blue (many prominent purple flowers), or cardinal (purple stems, purple/red flower heads)
  • fragrant leaves (holy, lemon, or lime).

Some basils fall in two or more groups. For example, cinnamon basil has fragrant leaves, purple stems and veins, and deep pink flowers. This plant provides scent, flavor, and color.

cinnamon basil

The following are suggestions for using basil. The exact species or cultivar depends on your personal preference and availability in your area.

Container Plant

All types of basil can be used as container plants for green, variegated, or purple foliage, or colorful flower heads. Basil comes in different sizes from 8 inches to 4 feet so make sure the maximum height is in proportion to the container. Companion plants must also like well-drained soil and the container should have drainage holes. I had a few extra holy basil plants that I stuck in the same container as my bush beans and both are thriving.

basil flowering in container with ornamental pepper

Annual in the Garden

All types can be used as an annual in the garden bed, either for green, variegated, or purple foliage or for colorful flower heads or simply to fill in a gap. If you think of basil as a flowering annual like a marigold, you could plant them in the same type of location. My Thai, lemon, and lime basil have filled the gap left by my bleeding heart plant, which goes dormant in the beginning of the summer. In particular, the dwarf basils are best for creating a tight edging effect. They have small leaves, similar to boxwood, and are great for delineating a garden bed in the summer. Spicy globe basil is often used to outline a garden bed.

purple basil

Cut Flower for a Vase

The basils that are grown for colorful flower heads or dark foliage are beautiful in flower arrangements. For example, Thai and African blue provide purple flowers and Purple Ruffles provide purple leaves.

African blue basil

Potpourri and Dried Flower Arrangements

Basil produces a tall, sturdy flower stalk that dries well and can be used in dried flower arrangements. The leaves or flowers can be used in potpourris, especially the more fragrant leaves such as cinnamon basil. When I cut Thai basil and fresh flowers such as dahlias for a vase, I can throw away the dahlias after they have past their prime and put the Thai basil flower spikes in another vase with purple gomphrena as a dried flower arrangement. A basil flower has a rigid calyx, like a socket, that holds the small delicate flower like a lightbulb. Once the flower is past its prime, it drops out and the rigid calyx remains.

Thai basil

Pollinator Magnet and Bird Food

Basil’s small flowers are attractive to beneficial insects and bees. Birds, such as goldfinches, love the seed heads. I grow lemon basil in a container on the deck to attract the finches so I can see the birds up close through my kitchen window.

Botanical Flavor

Usually a sweet basil such as Genovese is used in pasta, eggs, pesto, soups, salad, and vegetables, but you can try any type of basil.  I use lemon basil with fish and Thai basil with stir fried chicken and vegetables. Thai basil is often used in Asian cuisine because it keeps its flavor at high temperatures.  Holy basil often is used in Indian cuisine and the sweet basil is often used in the Italian cuisine. There are so many cuisines that employ basil and so many recipes it is best to obtain an herbal cookbook.

sweet basil

The purple basils work well in vinegar or oil for color and scented basils such as cinnamon can be used for flavor in either a vinegar, oil, or marinade. I use the cinnamon which has a purple tinge in homemade vinegar and give it as a gift to my family.

Sweet basil is good for butter and the spicy types are good for honey and jellies. I swirl small pieces of sweet basil into a stick of soft butter for use on breads and rolls. (This also makes a good hostess gift).

Lemonade, cocktails, tea, and fruit juice pair well with basil. Try adding the spicy, cinnamon, lemon or lime flavored basils to these drinks for flavor or just make a cup of tea with basil leaves.

Basil flavors cookies, pound cakes, and breads (rolls, muffins, flatbreads). I use the sweet basil for flatbreads and dinner rolls and the lemon, lime, or cinnamon for pound cakes. For a real conversation piece, sometimes I decorate a cake with basil flowers, which are edible. The actual flower is small and within the calyx so I have to pull the flower out from the calyx with tweezers. This takes time but is good for a special occasion when you want to “wow” folks.

Basil can be used in sugar syrups for fruit salads, desserts, and drinks. This is especially good with cinnamon, lemon, or lime basil. Make a sugar syrup by bringing to boil one cup of water and one cup of sugar with one cup of leaves and then simmer for 15 minutes. Drain through a colander to remove the leaves and let the syrup cool before using. Keep the syrup in a jar in the refrigerator to have on hand (throw out after a week or two).

glass jar of basil sugar syrup

Another way to “wow” family and friends is to sprinkle strips or ribbons of lemon, lime, or cinnamon basil leaves on fruit salads and/or add the small flowers to the fruit salads (again pull the actual flower out with tweezers).  As mentioned before, coat fruit salads with the sugar syrups or intersperse a leaf with chunks of fruit on a kebab.

Try growing several basil plants in your garden, which are easy to grow from seed but small transplants are commonly found at the local nurseries in the beginning of the growing season.

Grow Lemon Balm for Lemon Fragrance and Flavor

lemon_balm (2)Lemon balm is one of the easiest herbs to grow. A hardy perennial, lemon balm has lemon scented leaves. My plant thrives in morning sun and afternoon shade in my Virginia garden. It dies back in the winter, coming back in early spring. By summer, it is  about 2 feet tall. Hardy to zone 4, lemon balm co-exists well with other plants in the garden, serving as a beautiful green “landscape edible.”

It also is a pollinator plant. Its botanical name, Melissa officinalis, refers to the bee attracting white flowers (“Melissa” is Greek for “bee”) and long-serving medicinal qualities (“officinalis” refers to historical medicinal value). Actually, lemon balm’s medicinal value dates back over 2,000 years but for my family I tend to focus on lemon balm’s culinary uses. Fresh leaves add lemon flavor in baked goods such as pound cake, muffins, scones, and cookies; fruit salad; sorbets; butters; cheese; and fish and chicken dishes. Plus, the leaves’ wrinkly texture provide visual interest as a garnish in fruit salads, drinks, and desserts.

Out of all the herbal teas, lemon balm tea taste most like black tea, without the caffeine. I use the dried leaves for hot or iced tea either alone or as a base to which I add more pronounced fruity flavors from other plants. In the spring and summer, I pick the leaves as I need them or shear the entire plant down.  The plant revives quickly and a second shearing can be done before the fall.

Lemon balm is easy to grow from seed but also cheap to buy as a small plant. If a friend has it, get a stem cutting and root it in water. As a member of the mint family, lemon balm roots easily but this species is not as invasive as mints because it spreads by seed instead of runners. Whenever I give talks about herbs to gardening groups, they said that lemon balm is too assertive for them but I have not had that issue. I have had my plant in my garden for many years and twice I noticed new plants several feet away in other parts of the garden but they are not long lasting.

Try growing lemon balm in your garden or in a container for fresh lemon flavor!

Looking for Great American Gardener Nominations

Nominations are open now for the 2024 Great American Gardener Awards! Every year, the American Horticultural Society celebrates outstanding achievements, encourages excellence, and inspires innovation in the art and science of horticulture through its Great American Gardeners Awards program. Six categories of awards will be recognized in 2024. Nominations will be accepted through September 29, 2023. Visit the American Horticultural Society website for a nomination form.

I have been a member of the American Horticultural Society for a long time. I enjoy reading their magazine, The American Gardener. This non-profit education organization was founded in 1922 and is one of the oldest and most prestigious gardening organizations. The American Horticultural Society is dedicated to sharing with all Americans the critical role of plants, gardens, and green spaces in creating healthy, livable communities and a sustainable planet. Their headquarters, called River Farm, is in Alexandria, VA, and is open to the public. They have beautiful gardens with a splendid view of the Potomac River. If you are not a member, join today!

The following are the awards categories.

Liberty Hyde Bailey Award: Given to an individual who has made significant lifetime contributions to at least three of the following horticultural fields: teaching, research, communications, plant exploration, administration, art, business, and leadership.

Emerging Horticultural Professional Award: Given in the early stages of an individual’s career, this award recognizes significant achievements and/or leadership that have advanced the field of horticulture in America.

Garden Stewardship Award: Given to a public garden that embraces and exemplifies sustainable horticultural practices in design, maintenance, and/or programs.

Horticultural Innovation Award: Given to an individual or company whose innovations have made the field of horticulture more sustainable and accessible to all.

Marc Cathey Award: Recognizes outstanding scientific research that has enriched the field of horticulture.

Jane L. Taylor Award: Given to an individual, organization, or program that has inspired and nurtured future horticulturists through efforts in children’s and youth gardening.

Native Paw Paw Trees

Paw paw flowers in the spring

Paw paw season is around the corner! Paw paws (Asimina triloba) are native trees that bear fruit in August, September, and October. Fruit of cultivated trees look very similar to mangos—green, kidney-shaped, and about 6 inches long and 3 inches wide. They have a variety of common names such as Indiana banana, poor man’s banana, and bandango.

When cut in half, the interior of a paw paw fruit reveals a yellow, custard-like pulp with two rows of large seeds. Paw paws can weigh from ½ to 1 pound. Technically a berry, they are the largest North American edible fruit. Paw paws taste like a cross between a banana and a mango with a splash of pineapple. They can be eaten raw or used in ice cream, pudding, smoothies, butter (such as apple butter), baked goods like cookies and pies, and even beer, brandy, and wine!

From Florida to Texas, north to New York, and west to Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, and Nebraska, paw paws are native to 26 states and grow as understory trees in hardwood forests near streams and rivers. In the wild, the trees grow to 15 to 30 feet and sucker, creating colonies. Reminiscent of cucumber magnolias, they have foot-long, dark green leaves. Unlike other fruit trees, paw paw trees are not subject to a high level of pests and diseases.

Paw Paws in American History and Folklore

Paw paw trees are part of American history and folklore. Jamestown colonists wrote about them in the 1600s. John Lawson, an Englishman, described them in his travels in the Carolinas in the 1700s. Danielle Boone enjoyed eating them. Members of the Lewis and Clark expedition ate paw paws for pleasure as well as sustenance. George Washington grew paw paw trees at Mount Vernon and ate the fruit as dessert. Thomas Jefferson grew them and sent seeds to his colleagues in Europe.  William Bartram, a naturalist, described the trees in Bartram’s Travels. His father, John Bartram, a botanist, sent seeds to Europe. During the Civil War, soldiers as well as African American slaves collected the fruit in the wild to supplement their meager diets. There is even a popular folk song called “Way Down Yonder in the Paw Paw Patch” about collecting ripe paws paws from the ground and putting them in a basket.

Paw paw fruit develop in clusters

Finding Paw Paw Trees and Fruit

Currently, Washington DC residents can see paw paw trees in the wild along the C&O Canal and Potomac River and as native plant representatives in public gardens. There are paw paw trees at the Smithsonian Pollinator Garden, next to the National Museum of Natural History, and at the U.S. Botanic Garden’s Bartholdi Park and their National Garden’s Regional Garden of Mid-Atlantic Native Plants. 

Although paw paws are part of American heritage, you may not find them in grocery stores. When the fruit is ripe enough to eat, it drops to the ground and is highly perishable. The thin skin bruises easily, discoloring to black. Paw paws are best eaten immediately or preserved by removing and freezing the pulp. You may find them at local farmers markets in peak season and you will definitely find them at paw paw events across the country in the fall.

Growing Paw Paws in the Home Landscape

Paw paw fruits can be eaten raw

“There is a paw paw renaissance now,” said Michael Judd, owner of Ecologia, an edible and ecological landscaping service in Frederick, MD. Author of Edible Landscape with a Permaculture Twist and For the Love of Paw Paws, Michael hosts an annual paw paw festival in September  as well as other paw paw related events (see his website). “I call the paw paw an edible landscape all-stars because the tree is very attractive, low maintenance, and very fruitful.”

As native, hardy trees, paw paws can be grown in typical suburban plots. “Paw paws grow easily here,” said Michael. “This is paw paw country.” Although they are not self-fertile, that is, there must be two trees to cross pollinate to produce fruit, one can trim the trees to fit in residential properties. Michael recommends growing the trees in full sun, 10 to 12 feet apart, and cutting the central leader back to keep the trees at 8 feet. This shorten stature also makes them easier to harvest the fruit. Therefore, homeowners could have two 8-foot trees in the yard producing 50 pounds of fruit each year. If full sun is not possible, they can grow in part shade but will produce less fruit.

Paw paw trees have a pyramidal shape

Michael recommends purchasing either a grafted tree, a select seedling, or a specific cultivar. Starting from seed takes years to produce fruit. Also starting from a wild paw paw seed will result in less than desirable fruit. The taste of wild paw paws varies plus the fruit is small with a poor pulp to seed ratio.  Breeders spend years selecting desirable characteristics such as large fruit, a high pulp to seed ratio (more pulp, less seed), and good flavor.

You can’t go wrong planting paw paws. They are native, deer resistant trees that provide fruit and pretty yellow fall color. “Paw paw trees are very ornamental, they have a beautiful pyramidal shape,” explained Michael. “The leaves turn to a beautiful yellow golden color in the fall and when the leaves drop they reveal a tree with nice architecture in the winter.”

All photos taken by Michael Judd.