Category Archives: Plant pests and diseases

Remove the Bagworms in Your Shrubs and Trees

Bagworms are common pests in the Washington DC metro area. Usually we do not see the actual worms (Thyridoptery x ephemeraeformis), we see their “homes,” which are 2-inch long “bags” they have spun from silk and plant debris. These bags are hung like small, brown ornaments on shrubs and trees. At this time of year, they are prominent and should be removed.

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Got Deer? Try These Tactics in the Garden

deerNewcomers to this area will eventually see deer standing on the roadside or venturing out of the woods at dusk. At first, they admire the lovely bucolic sight, gentle deer, twitching their tails, flicking their ears back and forth. But as the newcomers settle down and try their hand at gardening, they learn that the deer are not as cute as they once thought. Continue reading

Gardening Questions? Ask These Experts

cucumberSummer is here and by now your Victory garden is planted. Dreams of fresh red tomatoes and lush green cucumbers are dancing in your head. But wait, what are those green caterpillars? What are those brown spots? Answers to these gardening questions and more are available from your local Master Gardeners and county extension agents. Even during this pandemic, they are standing by to help you with your gardening issues. Best of all, this is a free service for the public. Continue reading

Herbs Attract and Support Beneficial Insects in the Garden

Small thyme flowers

The herbs in my garden live among the annuals, perennials, vegetables, and shrubs. I do not have a separate, formal herb garden.  Every new herb plant gets tucked in any space I can find. I harvest them to use them fresh in the kitchen and for floral arrangements. By summer, many of my herbs are blooming along with everything else but that’s okay, they still serve a purpose. Even if I didn’t get to harvest them, they are helping the rest of the garden by attracting and supporting beneficial insects. Continue reading

Got Deer? Try These Tactics in the Garden

deerNewcomers to this area will eventually see deer standing on the roadside or venturing out of the woods at dusk. At first, they admire the lovely bucolic sight, gentle deer, twitching their tails, flicking their ears back and forth. But as the newcomers settle down and try their hand at gardening, they learn that the deer are not as cute as they once thought. Continue reading

You Got Gardening Questions? Ask These Experts

cucumberSummer is here and by now your Victory garden is planted. Dreams of fresh red tomatoes and lush green cucumbers are dancing in your head. But wait, what are those green caterpillars? What are those brown spots? Answers to these gardening questions and more are available from your local Master Gardeners and county extension agents. Even during this pandemic, they are standing by to help you with your gardening issues. Best of all, this is a free service for the public. Continue reading

Time to Cut Those Bagworms!

Last night, during my evening walk I noticed an unusual number of bagworms on a few evergreens. Bagworms are common pests in the Washington DC metro area. What I saw weren’t the bagworms themselves (Thyridoptery x ephemeraeformis) but their “homes,” 2-inch long “bags” they have created from their spun silk and plant debris. These bags were hung like small, brown ornaments on relatively new plantings in someone’s front yard. Some of the needles were clearly brown and dead.  Interestingly, one bag was hanging from the neighbor’s chain link fence, creating a very visible view of the threads wrapped round the metal.

Bagworms are moths, native to North America. They can attack more than 120 different types of trees but we tend to see them on evergreens such as juniper, arborvitae, cedar, spruce, pine, and Leyland cypress.

In the beginning of the summer, the eggs hatch and the larvae move out of the bags. The tiny caterpillars, 2 millimeters long, eat foliage and/or move to other trees via their silk threads. When they settle on their host tree, they spin a small bag of silk and plant debris. As they grow, their bags become bigger with more material collected from the host plant. By August, they have matured and the bags are very visible. During August and September the male adult bagworms, i.e., moths, emerge and fly to find a female to mate. The females cannot fly, they are grub-like and never leave the bag. Mating occurs through the bag and after mating, the female lays 500 to 1,000 eggs within her pupal cast skin and dies. The eggs overwinter and hatch next year in May or June.

Bagworms can defoliate and kill trees, especially evergreens. Although they can attack deciduous trees, most are not defoliated enough to be killed. Bagworms can also kill twigs by winding their silk around the twigs too tightly.

note white silk thread wrapped tightly around chain link fence

Now is the time to look for the bags and remove them by cutting them off–not pulling–bagging and disposing. Do not put them in your compost bin. If they are on the perimeter they will be easy to find but don’t forget to move branches aside and look within the tree. It goes without saying that a tree that has a bag will be damaged repeatedly each year, weakening the tree and possibly killing it.

Another option is to spray the tree with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in May or June when the caterpillars have hatched and are on the foliage. This is a type of bacteria that kills the worms but does not harm the tree. If the tree is too tall, call an arborist. Spraying them later in the season after they have created their bags will not work since the bags will protect them. Or replace the evergreens with more resistant plants. But go out there now and inspect your plants, you need to remove them before the males emerge!

Pegplant’s Post Giveaway: Bobbex Deer Repellent Spray

I am very excited about the giveaway for the January 2019 issue of Pegplant’s Post. Bobbex, a company known for effective deer repellent, has generously offered to ship one 48 oz. E-Z ready to use sprayer and one quart bottle of concentrated spray of their deer repellent, a $55 value. Their deer repellent was rated number 1 by an independent study conducted by the Connecticut Department of Forestry and Horticulture. Environmentally friendly, the Bobbex deer repellent is a foliar spray that protects ornamental plantings, shrubs, and forest trees from browsing and feeding by deer, moose, and elk (we don’t have moose and elk in the DC metro area but we have plenty of deer). The spray is a blend of ingredients that are offensive to deer but harmless to humans and safe for wildlife. The Bobbex website has very useful information on how to recognize and deter deer, goose, rabbits, and small animal damage and offers a variety of repellent products.

This giveaway opportunity is for subscribers of Pegplant’s Post, an online, free newsletter for people interested in gardening in the Washington DC metro area. Each issue provides at least 50 but up to 100 gardening events; newly published gardening books; local tips, advice, and articles; and a monthly giveaway contest.

To subscribe, click here or visit pegplant.com and enter your e-mail address in the box above “subscribe!” on the right column. Pegplant’s Post will be issued on the last weekend of the month.

What’s That in the Tree? Fall Webworm

August turns up all kinds of pests and disease in the garden. You may be noticing large webs across the terminal branches of your trees now, similar to stretched pantyhose. Look closely and you will see small caterpillars inside, each marked with parallel rows of black spots on the back. The fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) is very noticeable now but at this stage, the caterpillars stay in the web and feed inside on the leaves. The web is unsightly but their feeding will not kill the tree. However, this would be a good time to cut the branches and bag the webs, caterpillars and all. Close up the bags tightly and dispose of in the trash. Later, after the last molt, they leave the web and crawl all over the tree. Then they spin cocoons, pupate, and emerge as white moths. If you are not able to bag the web don’t despair, there are many natural enemies of the fall webworm. Another tactic is to spray the first generation in the spring with horticultural oil, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), or insecticidal soap before they create the web. Don’t try to burn them out though, it is too dangerous to the tree. For more information on plant pests and diseases, check out the Plant Pests and Diseases tab on pegplant.com.

Got Deer? Try These Tactics to Keep Deer Out of Your Garden

Newcomers to the Washington DC metro area will eventually see deer standing on the roadside or coming out of the woods at dusk. At first, it is a lovely bucolic sight, gentle beautiful deer, twitching their tails, flicking their ears back and forth. But as the newcomers settle down into their homes and try their hand at gardening, they quickly learn that the deer are not as cute as they once thought. In this area, the suburbs provide ideal conditions for deer. There is plenty of food and water in the landscape and ample cover. The deer’s natural predators–bobcats, coyotes, and panthers–have long been eliminated. Many new homes have common ground for easier mowing, thus eliminating fencing. As homeowners sleep at night, families of deer wander in and help themselves to luscious hosta, delightful roses, and all the vegetables they want. Fortunately, there are multiple methods to deal with deer, depending on one’s budget and time.

Repellents

Those who have had their gardens ravaged by deer are tempted to try homemade repellents such as human hair, deodorant soap, and stinky garlic/pepper sprays. The truth is, they really offer little relief. If the smell does not end up repelling you, rain will wash the odor away so they will have to be re-applied. Commercial sprays are more effective but are not cheap. You have to determine just how often you will have to apply in one growing season multiplied by the number of years you intend to live on that property. Or you can weigh the damage versus the cost and time spent on the commercial spray. In my home, the deer will run through the tomato patch once in the spring and then they are gone for the rest of the season. The tomato plants grow back in the summer so I have learned to grow plenty of tomatoes (from seed) and forgo the cost of a repellent spray.

Deer Resistant Plants

Deer resistant demonstration garden with bluestar (Amsonia) in background

The term “deer resistant plants” refers to plants that deer usually won’t bother because of taste or difficulty to consume. However, if there is a summer drought or an unusually large number of deer, the limited food supply may drive them to eat plants that they would normally not eat. These lists of plants are actually more helpful when you use them to not buy the plants deer are known to love. For example, it is well known that deer like hostas so unless you have a plan to thwart the animals, you may not want to invest in hostas.

Daffodils are poisonous so deer do not eat them

Some of the deer resistant plants include pungent, poisonous, or highly textured plants. The deer never bother my highly aromatic rosemary, sage, and oregano herbs. Deer are not interested in poisonous daffodils, Christmas rose (Helleborus), foxglove (Digitalis), and monkshood (Aconitum). Plants that have hairy, fuzzy, or gray/silver leaves are usually ignored by deer. Plants that produce paper-dry flowers such as gomphrena also are not bothered. Thorns don’t seem to deter them though, they eat roses like candy. If you are trying to plan a deer resistant landscape, plant more woody shrubs and less herbaceous perennials, which are soft and succulent to a family of deer.

Deer Patterns

Another trick is to learn the roaming patterns of the deer in your area. Disrupt their patterns with either plants they won’t bother or with structures. Deer are creatures of habit so once you learn their habit you can foil them. At my home, deer usually jump the fence in front of my house to go through the backyard and over the low fence in the far right corner. They never go to the left corner because it is an intersection of three different fences, all various heights and visibility. Therefore, I can feel safe planting shrubs in the left corner. Deer may walk on the front lawn up to the front strip of plants but never walk up the concrete steps to the door. And they never walk on to the wooden deck in the back of the house. This means I can plant the aromatic herbs in the front strip and the hostas toward the front door. I can plant anything in containers on the wooden deck because they won’t walk up on to the deck.

Scare Tactics

There are scare tactics as well like motion-activated watering devices, lights, and sounds. Usually these are not practical in a suburban area, especially with homeowner association rules. It does not do to wake up the neighbors with flashing lights because deer are roaming in your territory.

Fences

Fencing is more of an investment but it is a long-term solution. The fencing does not have to be for the entire property. A fence around the vegetable garden might be all you need to keep them out of the edibles. A fence should be at least 8 feet tall, or us a slant fence, or a double fence. Unless scared, deer won’t jump blindly. They need to know they have a safe place to land. A slant or double fence makes them realize they cannot land safely on the other side. Fencing can be made of metal or polypropylene or can be electric. There are professional deer fencing companies that either sell do it yourself kits or can install a fence for you. Of course, local hardware stores have supplies for you to install a fence yourself.

When erecting a fence, keep in mind that deer do not see well and may accidentally run into the fence. Therefore, the fence has to be strong enough to resist this type of damage. And, if a deer does jump over the fence and land in an enclosed area, have a plan to be able to release the presumably wild and panicked animal. Make sure you construct a door or opening so the deer can come out on its own.

If you have a deer problem, don’t be disheartened, there are solutions and it may be a combination of solutions that work best for you. Below are sources for deer resistant plants, deer repellents, fencing options, and books.

 

Deer Resistant Plant Lists

Rutgers, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Landscape Plants Rated by Deer resistance

Deer Resistant Shrubs and Trees (both Native and Non-Native Species to Virginia), the State Arboretum of Virginia

Cornell Cooperative Extension Deer Resistant Plants

Maryland Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 655, Wildlife Damage Management, Resistance of Ornamentals to Deer Damage

Commercial Deer Repellents

Maryland Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 810, Using Commercial Deer Repellents to Manage Deer Browsing in the Landscape

Deer Fencing

Virginia Cooperative Extension, Low-Cost Slant Fence Excludes Deer from Plantings

University of Maryland Extension, Low-cost Deer Fence Alternative

University of Maryland Extension Fencing for Your Garden

Books

50 Beautiful Deer-Resistant Plants: The Prettiest Annuals, Perennials, Bulbs, and Shrubs that Deer Do Not Eat by Ruth Rogers Clausen, 2011

Solving Deer Problems: How to Deer Proof Your Yard and Garden by Peter Loewer, 2015

Deer Resistant Landscaping: Proven Advice and Strategies for Outwitting Deer and 20 Other Pesky Mammals by Neil Soderstrom, 2009

Deer Proofing Your Yard and Garden by Rhonda Massingham Hart, 2005